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Chapter 2 Chronic Kidney Disease Risk factors

29 July 2017

There are several conditions and diseases that can eventually lead to CKD. Nowdays, diabetes and hypertension are the most common causes of CKD. Diabetes Mellitus is responsible for the 44% of patients that start hemodialysis in the United States and for the 38% of patients under any stage of CKD. The above does not mean that who ever has diabetes or hypertension will develop CKD. On the other had it does mean that the above person has to have under consideration what is necessary to maintain his health.

Diabetes is a condition in which patient has high blood glucose (sugar) levels caused either a reduction or lack of insulin or resistance to it in the body. High glucose can significantly affect the structure and function of blood vessels. Very close to the western style of life is diabetes type II where the body does not react to insulin in normal fashion and is often associated with obesity and occurs often after the age of 30. Over the time insulin deficiency results in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates, fat and protein and small vessel of the kidney can be affected causing destruction of the filters of the kidney.

Hypertension (high blood pressure) provokes damage to the blood vessels, causing ischemia and accelerating the progression of kidney disease.

Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the filters of the kidneys autoimmune or unknown cause. It may cause nephrotic syndrome and CKD. Definite diagnosis can be made by kidney biopsy.

Hereditary diseases, such as polycystic kidney disease (PKD) may also cause CKD. PKD, most common disease in this category, characterized by abnormal sacs , called cysts which contain fluid, gas or tissue. As these cysts grow, they block normal kidney function. Cysts may be infected and can bleed.

Autoimmune diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus may cause inflammation in all organs in the body, including the kidneys.